Qatar( UK/ ˈkætɑːr, ˈkʌt-, ˈɡæt-, ˈɡʌt-, kæˈtɑːr, ɡæ-, kə-/, US/ ˈkɑːtɑːr, kəˈtɑːr/;( a) Arabic قطر, romanized Qaṭar( ˈqɑtˤɑr); original conversational pronunciation( ˈɡɪtˤɑr)),( 13)( 14)( 15)( 16) officially the State of Qatar,( b) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern seacoast of the Arabian Peninsula in the Middle East; it shares its sole land border with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its home girdled by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an bay of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from near Bahrain. The capital is Doha, home to over 80 of the country’s occupants, and the land area is substantially made up of flat, low- lying desert. State of Qatar دولة قطر( Arabic) Dawlat Qaṭar Flag of Qatar Flag Emblem of Qatar Emblem Aphorism الله الوطن الأمير God, Nation, Emir Anthem السلام الأميري As- Salām al- ʾAmīrī( transliteration) ” Peace to the Emir” 127 position and extent of Qatar( dark herbage) on the Arabian Peninsula Location and extent of Qatar( dark herbage) on the Arabian Peninsula Capital and largest megacity Doha 25 ° 18 ′ N 51 ° 31 ′ E Functionary languages Arabic( 1) Common languages English Ethnical groups( 2019)( 3) 40 Arab 36 South Asian( 2) — 21 Indian —12.5 Bangladeshi —4.5 Pakistani —4.3 Sri Lankan 9 Egyptian 14 Other Religion( 2020)( 4) Islam( functionary) Hinduism Christianity Buddhism Others Demonym( s) Qatari Government Unitary authoritarian( 5)( 6) administrativesemi-constitutional monarchy • Emir Tamim bin Hamad • Prime Minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani Legislature Consultative Assembly Establishment • Qatar National Day 18 December 1878 • Declared independence 1 September 1971 • Independence from the United Kingdom 3 September 1971 Area • Total km2(,471 sq mi)( 158th) • Water() Population • 2020 estimate ( 7)( 139th) • 2010 tale ( 8) • viscosity 176/ km2(455.8/ sq mi)( 76th) GDP( PPP) 2022 estimate • Total Increase$303.596 billion( 9)( 62st) • Per capita Increase$,675( 9)( 4th) GDP( nominal) 2022 estimate • Total Increase$221.369 billion( 9)( 55th) • Per capita Increase$,877( 9)( 5th) Gini( 2007) ( 10) medium HDI( 2021) Increase0.855( 11) veritably high · 42nd Currency Qatari riyal( QAR) Time zone UTC 3( AST) Driving side right( 12) Calling law 974 ISO 3166 law QA Internet TLD qa قطر.
Qatar has been ruled as a heritable monarchy by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani inked a convention with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar came a British mandate in 1916, and gained independence in 1971. The current emir is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, who holds nearly all superintendent and legislative authority under the Constitution of Qatar, as well as controlling the bar.( 17) He appoints the high minister and press. The incompletely- tagged Consultative Assembly can block legislation and has a limited capability to dismiss ministers. In early 2017, the total population of Qatar was2.6 million, with,000 of them Qatari citizens and2.3 million deportees.( 18) Its sanctioned religion is Islam.( 19) In terms of income, the country has the fourth-loftiest GDP( PPP) per capita in the world,( 20) and the eleventh-loftiest GNI per capita( Atlas system).( 21) Qatar ranks 42nd in the Human Development Index, the third-loftiest HDI in the Arab world.( 22) It’s a high- income frugality, backed by the world’s third- largest natural gas reserves and oil painting reserves.( 23) Qatar is one of the world’s largest exporters of thawed natural gas,( 24) and the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide per capita.
In the 21st century, Qatar surfaced as a middle power in the Arab world through its resource- wealth,( 26)( 27) as well as its encyclopedically expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several recusant groups financially during the Arab Spring.( 28)( 29)( 30) Qatar forms part of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Qatar’s mortal rights record has been regarded by academics andnon-governmental organisations as being generally poor, with restrictions on civil liberties similar as the freedoms of association, expression and the press, as well as its treatment of thousands of migratory workers amounting to forced labour for systems in the country. Pliny the Elder, a Roman pen, proved the foremost account pertaining to the occupants of the promontory around themid-first century announcement, pertaining to them as the Catharrei, a designation that may have deduced from the name of a prominent original agreement.( 33)( 34) A century latterly, Ptolemy produced the first known chart to depict the promontory, pertaining to it as Catara.( 34)( 35) The chart also substantiated a city named” Cadara” to the east of the promontory.( 36) The term” Catara”( occupants, Cataraei)( 37) was simply used until the 18th century, after which” Katara” surfaced as the most generally recognised spelling.( 36) ultimately, after several variations —” Katr”,” Kattar” and” Guttur” the ultramodern secondary Qatar was espoused as the country’s name.( 38) In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced( ˈqɑtˤɑr), while in the original shoptalk it’s( ˈɡɪtˤɑr).( 16) English speakers use different approximate pronunciations of the name as the Arabic pronunciations use sounds not frequently used in English.
Qatar’s culture is analogous to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly told by Islam. Qatar National Day, hosted annually on 18 December, has had an important part in developing a sense of public identity.( 281) It’s observed in remembrance of Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani’s race to the throne and his posterior junction of the country’s colorful lines.( 282)( 283) Doha Cultural Festival Main composition Doha Cultural Festival The Doha Cultural Festival is one of the artistic conditioning carried out annually by the Qatari Ministry of Culture, trades and Heritage, which began in 2002 with the end of spreading Qatari culture outside and outdoors Qatar. trades and galleries Main papers Collecting practices of the Al- Thani Family, Qatari art, and Public art in Qatar Msheireb Downtown Doha The World’s first sustainable Town rejuvenescence design Qatari officers, especially the Al Thani family and the family of the Emir of Qatar, Al- Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, pay special attention to art.( 284)( 285) Through her public work and support of the Qatar Vision 2030, she’s erecting an instigative creative future for the country that will connect cultural communities in all areas of culture. Museum of Islamic Art in Doha Several elderly members of Qatar’s ruling Al Thani family are noted collectors of Islamic and contemporary art. The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the stylish galleries in the region.( 286) This, and several other Qatari galleries, like the Arab Museum of Modern Art, falls under the Qatar Museums Authority( QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al- Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al- Thani, the family of the ruling Emir of the State of Qatar, and the prominent collector and art patron Sheikh Hassan bin Mohammed Al Thani.( 287) The QMA also sponsors cultural events abroad, similar as major exhibitions by Takahashi Murakami in Versailles( 2010) and Damien Hirst in London( 2012). Qatar is the world’s biggest buyer in the art request by value.( 288) The Qatari artistic sector is being developed to enable the country to reach world recognition to contribute to the development of a country that comes substantially from its coffers from the gas assiduity.( 289) The National Museum of Qatar was opened to the public on 28 March 2019.
Firstly, written poetry was the most common form of expression. Abdul Jalil Al- Tabatabai and Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Uthaymeen, two muses dating back to the early 19th century, formed the corpus of Qatar’s foremost written poetry. Poetry latterly fell out of favor after Qatar began reaping the gains from oil painting exports in themid-20th century and numerous Qataris abandoned their Bedouin traditions in favor of further civic cultures.( 291) Due to the adding number of Qataris who began entering formal education during the 1950s and other significant societal changes, 1970 witnessed the preface of the first short story florilegium, and in 1993 the first locally penned novels were published. Poetry, particularly the predominant nabati form, retained some significance but would soon be overshadowed by other erudite types.( 291) Unlike utmost other forms of art in Qatari society, ladies have been involved in the ultramodern literature movement on a analogous magnitude to males.